This is the current Field Manual, and supersedes the June 2003 revision. Chapter 1 introduces theoretical and historical perspectives of urban operations that serve as the underlying basis for the rest of the manual. While this manual has incorporated lessons learned from recent and ongoing operations, it has deliberately taken a broad and varied historical perspective in order to remain relevant to future threats and circumstance differing from those that the Army currently faces. Chapter 2 discusses the characteristics of urban centers and populations as well as their impact on operations. It is unlikely that Army forces will ever operate in a benign urban environment; therefore, Chapter 3 discusses the varied nature of potential urban threats. Chapter 4 describes the effects of the urban environment on warfighting functions and tactics. An understanding of the complexities of the urban environment, the nature of the enemy as an adaptive, learning opponent, and the effects of the environment on warfighting capabilities and skills is essential to sound decision making. Chapters 5 and 6 discuss the potential costs of urban operations and risk reduction measures that the commander and his staff must consider early in their planning. These chapters also outline an urban operational framework and specific urban considerations that create the foundations necessary for successfully applying operational doctrine to an urban environment.
The second part of the manual (Chapters 7 - 10) discusses how urban operations are conducted and resourced. Urban operations include major offensive and defensive operations in urban environments as well as stability or civil support operations ranging from peace operations and counterterrorism to disaster relief and humanitarian assistance. For the different types of operations-offense, defense, and stability or civil support-the purpose, characteristics, organization, and considerations are discussed. However, commanders consider that most urban operations will normally involve the simultaneous execution of offense and defense with stability or civil support (although proportional emphasis will shift over time) and plan accordingly. The manual attempts to incorporate a broad range of historical vignettes into each chapter where the account supports the doctrinal line of reasoning. Two historical vignettes, however, were included as appendices (A and C) because of their longer lengths.