Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disorder rated among the top 10 most important conditions contributing to the world's disease burden. It is a heterogeneous multi-factorial disease, results from interaction between both genetic and environmental factors. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1), has been implicated in the pathogenesis of OA. One of its natural inhibitors, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), is a potent anti-inflammatory agent. IL-1Ra cytokine binds to IL-1 receptors and inhibits the binding of IL-1 without signal transduction, thus acting as an inhibitor of cartilage loss. When the balance between IL-1 and IL-1Ra is disturbed, inflammation and tissue damage occur, resulting in OA. Current study could have crucial clinical applications in screening, diagnosis, and monitoring of OA disease.