African countries are affected by outbreaks and disasters at any time, causing human suffering, deaths and large-scale economic losses. If health systems are not sufficiently equipped to deal with such situations, affected populations can be extremely vulnerable. The outbreak of Ebola virus disease now raging in West Africa shows how an epidemic can rapidly proliferates and causes serious problems in absence of a strong health system that can respond quickly and integrated. Thus, at origin of this book, a group of health economists who wish to respond effectively to problem of improving health of African people by improving health system status. The mathematical approach used in this framework allows highlighting different weaknesses of sub-Saharan African health system. Based on evaluation and analysis of resilience of system, authors propose a strategic plan to clearly respond to failures of health care in Africa. The prospects arising are presented in two major orientations each including a general objective and 4 specific objectives followed by recommended actions.