Groundnut is one of the most important oil and food crop of the world. However, it is considered to be an unpredictable legume, mainly because of its cultivation in rainfed areas and constant efforts are being made to improve the crop productivity under rainfed conditions. In this direction, studies on genetic diversity, correlation and path are expected to help the groundnut breeders in development of high yielding groundnut varieties for rainfed situation. In the present study, quantitative assessment of genetic divergence had resulted in grouping of the 50 rainfed and drought tolerant groundnut genotypes into nine clusters, independent of geographical region and habit group. The genotypes, K 1725, K 1719, K 1717, K1718 and K 1848 were identified as promising genotypes for rainfed cultivation. Variability, character associations and path studies revealed 100 kernel weight, pod and haulm yields to be effective selection criteria for kernel yield improvement in groundnut under rainfed conditions. The book is expected to aid the Groundnut crop breeders and also post-graduate students of plant breeding discipline in their research projects on rainfed groundnut crop.