After a long period of turmoil, the Balkans recently entered an era of stability and gradual accession to the European Union, an opportunity for the integration of the region and the enhancement of its international strategic location. Towards this purpose, the region's transportation system plays a key-role as it formulates the conditions for cohesion and international accessibility. This role is accentuated by the European policy, which sets the context for the upgrade of the transportation system. A decade after the 5th enlargement and in spite of the indisputable progress, specific diversities within the region and significant differentiation in relation to the rest of the European Union are observed. Moreover, the global financial crisis continues to generate direct and indirect pressures on transport development in the region and in the wider European territory. This publication addresses the aforementioned issues and proposes the framework for the formulation of an integrated potential accessibility for the Balkan region.