Critical care nursing is the field of nursing with a focus on the utmost care of the critically ill or unstable patients. The patient's oral care is a key component of nursing care. Oral care is often considered primarily an intervention for patient's comfort, a characteristic that may reduce its priority and hence frequency. When patients are hospitalized for critical illness in the ICU, the oral flora is altered, accompanied by a decrease in salivary volume and an increase in dental plaque. Hospitalization also alters a patient's usual oral hygiene measures, further compromising oral health. Oral care protocols have been shown to benefit ICU patients, but additional research is needed, especially on the optimal frequency of oral care, the duration of tooth brushing needed during an episode of oral care, and educational considerations to ensure consistency in oral care practices among healthcare providers and family members. This book specifies the need to develop and implement a comprehensive oral care program for patients in critical care and acute care settings who are at high risk for healthcare-associated pneumonia.