Since last two decades, people are cautious about health and pollution created by the chemicals.Scientists have started green revolution to protect environment of the world. As a part of this, the study of green chemistry is essential for the design of new synthesis in the organic chemistry. Microwave heating has proved to be very useful tool to carry out curtain organic transformations under solvent free conditions which not only excludes the use of very hazardous environment non friendly solvents but also enhances the reaction rate greatly. Substituted 1, 3-propanediones are use as a starting material for the synthesis of flavanones and its derivatives. Diketones are found to possess biological activities too. This book presents the green and eco-friendly methods of synthesis of hydroxy-substituted 1, 3-propanediones, their spectroscopic characterization and antibacterial study. It will be helpful to students, researchers in the field of organic chemistry.