Organic matrix based slow release fertilizers (SRFs) appear to be a better alternative for eco-friendly and sustainable plant productivity and have many advantages over the conventional chemical fertilizers, organic manures or biofertilizers. The slow release fertilizers, SRF-II have shown the maximum retention capacity of nitrogen upto 50-days in comparison to soluble chemical fertilizers and no fertilizers which resulted in consistent availability of ammonium/nitrate to the plant and more synchronization with the growth rate of plant. The slow release fertilizers, SRF-II showed significant increase in growth, total biomass, plant productivity and seed yield in Indian mustard under the study. The SRFs (SRF-II and SRF-IV) significantly improved the soil fertility by increasing the soil enzyme activities and soil microbial count.SRF-IV also showed increase in seed yield of Indian mustard over the Azotobacter applied in free form in Indian mustard. The SRF-II resulted in the increased photosynthesis of Indian mustard grown under salt stress. The newly developed SRFs resulted in appreciable increase in net return.