This book provides first hand information on the geochemical distribution of 13 minor and trace elements in soils and recent sediments of Iraq. Geochemical background and baseline values are determined, based upon the analysis of more than 21000 samples, systematically collected from the Desert and Mesopotamia terrains; western and southern parts of the country. Together, they constitute more than 70% of Iraq's area and are among the most arid regions of the world. They are covered by immature soil in the former and saline fluvial deposits in the latter. The main objective of this publication is to provide reliable information on the concentration, spatial and mode of distribution and geochemical affinity of the elements analysed and to discuss factors controlling background and baseline values, including parent rocks, climate, pedogenesis, soil texture and mineralogy. The results provide valuable information on soil geochemistry in arid regions.