Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Eriks and Henn.) is one of the most important diseases of wheat in Tigray region. Regular surveying,race analysis and searching resistant genes plays significant role to develop resistant varieties against leaf rust. Hence, this study was carried out to determine the distribution and intensity leaf rust, identify physiologic races and evaluate the reaction of commonly growing wheat varieties to virulent races of leaf rust. During the survey,108 farmers' wheat fields and experimental plots were assessed in five districts of Southeastern Tigray, of which 95 (88%) of the fields were affected with leaf rust. The overall mean incidence and severity of the disease were 48.4 and 18.2%, respectively. According to the North American system of nomenclature for P.triticina, characterization of 40 mono pustules resulted in the identification of 22 races. The broadest virulence spectrum was recorded from TKTT race, making all Lr genes except Lr9 ineffective. The variety evaluation revealed that, Mekelle-3, Mekelle-4, Picaflor, Dashin and local showed susceptible reaction to TKTT, THTT and PHTT races.