The future is one of increasing competition and continuous shifts in the business and trading environments. Human resource development activities are increasingly expected to play a significant role in better positioning firms to compete. Yet there is little empirical evidence to suggest that companies, particularly those in developing economies, are exhibiting contemporary human resource practices and engaging in activities that would strategically position their human resources to be a source of firm competitive strength. This book explores the extent to which human resource development practices are being adopted by companies and seeks to determine the links between such practices and firm competitive strengths. It gauges firm strength in the five distinctive areas of competitive advantage; innovation, marketing, low cost leadership, quality and service. The analysis informs on the human resource practices of firms, by maturity, industry and size, in relation to issues of competitiveness and preparation for the future. It should be especially interesting to human resource professionals and useful to those practising strategic management.