This book deals with the indigenous knowledge and practices of the Oromo of Ada'a of Eastern Shawa Zone, and their implications for environmental conservation focusing on land, water, plants/trees and wildlife. Many studies have dealt with indigenous knowledge and practices but only few looked at the question of how they contribute to environmental conservation. This study attempts to fill this gap. The qualitative research method was employed and data were gathered from the elderly men, Gada Leader and members through observation, focus group discussion, and in-depth interview. The study discuses how the indigenous knowledge and practices of the Oromo of Ada'a are influenced by their worldview, which they mainly derive from the concept of Waaqa (God), Ayyaana (spirit), safuu (respect, distance) and seera (laws). Within these frameworks, the indigenous knowledge and practices of the Oromo of Ada'a have been found to bear double implications for the conservation of natural resources in focus. As the study shows, the social and environmental problems now prevailing are attributed to the loss of safuu (respect) for nature.